วันจันทร์, กรกฎาคม 23, 2007

Notebooks Computer

Notebook, notebook computer, laptop, and laptop computer are different terms for a small computer, which is mobile, and weighing about 1 to 6 kg or 2.2 to 18 pounds, depending upon the model. In 1979-1980, Bill Moggridge of GRiD Systems Corp. designed one of the first laptops and named it as the GRiD Compass 1101. It featured the clamshell design where the flat display folded shut on the keyboard. In May 1983, Gavilan Computer Corp. introduced and first marketed as a laptop, known as Gavilan SC. About this same time, Sharp Corp.Ltd., announced their laptop Sharp PC-5000.In 1989, Compaq introduced Compaq LTE, which was a laptop of a smaller size, about the size of an A4 paper notebook, and it popularly came to be known as a notebook computer or notebook. Thereafter the terms laptop and notebook began to be used interchangeably. Nevertheless, the terms, notebook and laptop are incorrect terms, as due to the heat, many laptops cannot be placed on top of the lap, and most notebooks are not the size of an A4 paper notebook. However, what manufacturers usually call as a notebook, end-users prefer to call it as a laptop; hence both the terms are used.According to the functions and the models of notebooks, they are generally classified as: Ultraportables (screen is diagonally less than 12 inches, weight is 1.7 kg or less); thin-and lights (screen is diagonally from 12 to 14 inches, weight is from 1.8 to 2.8 kg); medium-sized laptops (screen is diagonally from 14 to 15.4 inches, weight is from 3 to 3.5 kg); and desktop replacement computers (screen is diagonally from 17 to 20 inches, weight is 4 to 6 kg).The concept of laptop was to make a device that could use the same software of a desktop computer, but much smaller in size to enable mobility and support mobile computing (ability to use the computer while in transit). Thus, further innovations have introduced transportables (which can be moved from one place to another without supporting mobile computing); tablets (which feature touchscreens and support mobile computing); ultra mobile PCs (which are very small and compact tablet PCs); internet tablets (which support internet and mobile computing); personal digital assistants (PDAs), which are pocket-sized and support mobile computing; handheld computers, which represent expensive tablets or PDAs; and smartphone, which is a PDA or a handheld computer with cellphone integration. Over the development phases, these classifications got blurry at times, and many machines fused functionalities of other categories.Notebooks can be used for various purposes. Commercial purposes like attending phone calls, receiving and sending emails and faxes, typing out letters and printing them, making presentations with pie and bar charts, and taking data from one place to another can be achieved by any standard notebook. However, high fliers prefer thin-and-light notebooks and for regular office work, ultraportable notebooks are preferred. Both are wireless notebooks so they can be remotely accessed. Scientific purposes are best suited with a notebook that features fast computing speed, good 2D and 3D graphics display, and a large memory, like desktop replacement notebook, and a thin-and-light notebook. Artistic purposes require animation, 2D and 3D drawings, interior & exterior designing, arranging music compositions, post-production audio-video work, etc., which can be fulfilled by desktop replacements, gaming notebooks, and mainstream notebooks.Educational institutions normally do not prefer notebooks due to its high chance of being stolen. Additionally, they prefer that their assets do not move around within the premises in the hands of students who may be careless. However, to keep up with the times, and to be considered as techno-savvy, they do invest in notebooks. The types of notebooks best suited for educational purposes are mainstream notebooks, and desktop replacements. Students need a notebook to do projects, prepare study notes, and to play some games in their spare time. They need to take the notebook wherever they go, hence, size and weight are major considerations. The type of notebook that fulfills student needs is a thin-and-light notebook with locking facility so that they can lock it with their backpack. Most students report late submission of projects due to their notebooks being stolen.So no matter what the purpose one might have for using a notebook, it seems that mobility will always seem to be the main reason for such a product purchase. Nowadays with so many models being offered with affordable prices, it seems that notebooks will always be a product in demand. After all it is one of the best selling computer hardware for quite some time. And that says it all.This article is under GNU FDL license and can be distributed without any previous authorization from the author. However the author's name and all the URLs (links) mentioned in the article and biography must be kept

Laptop Computer

A laptop computer (also known as notebook computer) is a small mobile personal computer, usually weighing from 1 to 3 kilograms (2 to 7 pounds). Computers larger than PDAs but smaller than notebooks are also sometimes called "palmtops". Laptops can easily be transported and conveniently used in temporary spaces such as on airplanes, schools, temporary offices, and at meetings. Laptop computers generally cost more than desktop computers with the same capabilities because they are more difficult to design and manufacture. Laptops are generally composed of a motherboard, sound card, graphic card, CD-ROM drive, floppy drive, monitor, mouse and keyword. Why should I choose a Laptop instead of a Desktop Computer? Key features & Tips! Depending on your usage, you may find yourself needing a more portable solution for your computing needs. If this is the case then a laptop is a must. If you are going to choose a laptop computer you must do one thing first: determine what exactly your laptop is to do. This will help avoid unhappiness after the purchase. For instance if you are going to use your computer only for internet access and running small software programs then a notebook is for you, but if you wish to start a MP3 collection and run intensive programs then a desktop is a better match for you. One thing to remember that for laptops are 20%-40% slower than their desktop equivalents (having the same features i.e. CPU, RAM, hard disk capacity etc.) slower CPU's, motherboards, hard drives and video systems all contribute to the overall speed.Laptops comes in a range of different prices. You can find many discount laptops from as little as Rs.3,2000.00 to over Rs.3,00,000.00. Price ranges for laptops general depend on the manufacturers and the extras that you decide to add on. Some of the more popular manufacturers of Laptops include Dell, Apple Macintosh, HP (Hewlett Packard), Compaq, IBM, NEC, Sony and many more.Things to look for in a laptop? Options & suggestions!There are many available options within a laptop package. Some of the key features you should be comparing when shopping for a computer laptop are as follows: hard drive size, processor speed, screen size and resolution, weight, battery size, amount of ram memory, type of motherboard, type of sound card, type of graphic card, CD-ROM drive, DVD-ROM drive, CD or DVD burner drive, floppy drive, zip disk drive, and warranty.

Apple Computer

Apple: Macintosh, based on the Alchemy architecture, features a 250 MHz PowerPC 603e processor, an ATI 3D RAGE II graphics accelerator, Video input, a TV/FM radio card, a side-mounted CD-ROM drive, a custom Bose speaker system complete with subwoofer, and a unique keyboard with an integrated Italian leather palm rest.Typography and logography of Apple Computer covers Apple Computer’s history of typeface and logo design in marketing, operating systems, and industrial design. In the late 1980s Apple developed TrueType, an outline font standard, amongst other technologies created later, including QuickDraw GX and Apple Advanced Typography. Apple controls several patents important to the implementation of high-quality typeface rendering on computers. In 1984 Apple created several new fonts for the Apple Macintosh computer. Apple has used three corporate fonts throughout its history including Motter Tektura, Apple Garamond and Adobe Myriad.Apple Advanced Typography (AAT) is Apple Computer's computer software for advanced font rendering, supporting internationalization and complex features for typographers, a successor to Apple's little-used QuickDraw GX font technology of the mid-1990s. It is a set of extensions to the TrueType outline font standard, with similar smartfont features to Adobe and Microsoft's OpenType font format, and the open source Graphite. It also incorporates concepts from Adobe's "multiple master" font format, allowing for axes of traits to be defined and morphing of a glyph independently along each of these axes. AAT font features do not alter the underlying typed text; they only affect the characters' representation during glyph conversion.Find Apple products at the Apple Store Online. IMac's, IPod's, eMac, PowerBooks, IBook, Power Mac's, software and accessories all available at great prices and delivered straight to your door.http://www.applepart.com http://www.idigitals.com


SCIENTISTS HAVE unveiled a new generation of Supercomputers, including a £30m machine with the memory of 200,000 home computers and a hard disk hefty enough to hold the entire Google index of the Internet.
The huge devices, each costing tens of millions of pounds, will compete against each other this year for the title of the planet's biggest electronic brains.
The first contender, Constellation, has been built by Sun Microsystems at a cost of $59m and boasts a 1.7 petabytes hard disk. It was unveiled at the International Supercomputer conference in Dresden, Germany.
The machine - which will go live later this year - can operate at speeds of 421 teraflops, or 421 trillion calculations a second. This will outstrip IBM's 280 Teraflop Blue Gene/L, currently ranked as the world's fastest computer, by some distance. But operating at such levels will be a significant power drain, requiring the same amount of power to run as a high-speed intercity train.
Despite the immense cost, officials said that high-powered computers were now more powerful and less expensive than ever before. "We have reached unprecedented cost performance for scientific computing," said Andreas Bechtolsheim, chief archi- tect and co-founder of Sun.
The first Constellation computer, called Ranger, will be installed at the University of Texas in order to assist scientists and engineers with running incredibly complex calculations. But although Constellation will put Sun back at the top table of hitech computing along with names such as Cray and IBM, its reign as the most powerful machine on the planet is likely to be short-lived.
IBM also took the stage in Dresden to announce its forthcoming plan to build the latest Blue Gene computer, dubbed "P". It is expected to be almost three times more powerful than its predecessor.
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History of Computers


Uninformed researchers of computer (computador) history would probably note the first computer in the mid 1930`s. In reality, this history dates nearly 2000 years ago with the invention of the abacus where the user programmed beads using formulated constructs.
Although many historians caution against the use of the word computer (computador) except to define 20th century computers, a broader understanding illuminates an instrument designed by a Frenchman and which functioned as a calculator and was designed for a tax collector in the 1600`s. Improvements to this calculator continued through the 19th century.
Similar work was underway in England and with the support of the government a `mechanical` calculator was invented. It was powered by steam and supported a fixed program for its use. This calculator went through many changes until an automatic calculator was invented. Following this flurry of discovery and invention, little changed until the early 1900`s when detailed mechanical and transportation work required complex mathematical calculations (especially calculus).
Two Census Bureau workers began to look for a means of accurately calculating information. They conceived the idea of a punch card which would be inserted into the computer (computador), read, and stored. The greatest advantage of these still slow moving machines was the ability to store large amounts of information with ease and accuracy.
The early 1940`s and the imminent World War, brought the military into the computer era (computador). New weapons requiring computer technology for effectiveness, were needed, designed and produced. These were large floor model machines and utilized the floor space of an average one family home (about 2,000 square feet). One independent computer (computador) was not adequate and a means was found to link computers which produced a more accurate and clear channel of information. These devices were not only cumbersome but they required rewiring and rechanneling for each program. Greater inventions were in progress. These new computers (computador) would be equipped with memory capacity and worker faster than any in existence at the time.
In 1947, the first modern programmable computers (computador) were designed. They contained RAM (Random Access Memory) and made it possible to access information in seconds. This technology continued to be tested and improved into the 1950`s when magnetic core memory and a transistor circuit element were discovered. These increased the memory capacity and functionality of the computers (computador). On the down side the cost to operate these machines was astronomical. By nearly sheer determination alone, these devices evolved into amazing machines able to work with a number of programs simultaneously while giving the impression that only one program was in use.
As recently as the 1960`s computers (computador) were more available and the price had become nearly reasonable for businesses. Their use however, was confined mostly to mathematically based operations such as billing, accounting, and payroll. One of the major purchasers of these devices was hospitals which stored date from patients, inventory, billing, treatments, and the like.
By the 1980`s smaller individual computers (computador) were being produced. Technology continued to astound the general public as the microchip came into existence permitting personal computers to be sold with accompanying program disks for downloading. A glance around most medium to large companies would reveal many desk top computers in use.
It would be impossible to track the history of computers (computador) without acknowledging Apple Computer and IBM for their leading edge and evolving technology. Radio Shack coupled with Apple Computer (computador) produced video games for the computer (a move from the arcade).
The ability for businesses and individuals to access the worldwide web gave birth to new and innovative marketing and communication with inquirers and/or clients. Today it is inconceivable that one attempt to research something on line and not find multiple references there. The momentum has only continued to mount and new upgrades are available nearly by the day.